National public budget represents the totality of the state budget incomes and expenditures, local budgets, budget of state social insurance and funds of obligatory medical insurance.
Revenues of national budget are the taxes and duties, grants and other state receipts, stipulated by the law in force.
Expenditures of the national budget are determined by the allocations stipulated by the annual budget law designed to meet society’s needs to cover social and scientific research expenditures, maintenance of state apparatus, military needs coverage, paying state debt, granting subsidies, developing the economic sector etc.
Budget deficit represents the exceeding expenditures over revenues.
Budget surplus represents the exceeding revenues over expenditures.
Monetary aggregates represent the volumes and the structure of the monetary mass intended to study the circulation of money in order to regulate it. Monetary mass consists of monetary aggregates M0, M1, M2, M3.
Profit (losses) before taxation reflects the financial result of the enterprise, obtained from all activities.
Net profit – financial result after taxation, obtained by the enterprise during reporting period.
Debt receivables – the part of assets of the enterprise, which have to be paid by third parties, natural or legal persons, in a certain period.
Liabilities represent the external sources of financing, given to the enterprise by third parties, which have to be paid in a certain period of time, according the established contract and other regulating documents. The liabilities include: financial, commercial and accrued debt.
Financial liabilities – liabilities connected to the involved capital (bank credits and loans received by the enterprise from natural and legal persons).
Trade liabilities – liabilities resulting from commercial transactions (liabilities to suppliers and entrepreneurs on raw material and fixed assets, goods received, and also for the services provided).
Accrued liabilities – liabilities to other legal and natural persons (personnel, social insurance funds, budget, various creditors).
The reporting criteria for the small and medium-sized enterprises sector are determined according to the Law of the Republic of Moldova no. 179 of July 21, 2016 “Regarding Small and Medium Enterprises”:
- average annual number of employees (the average number of employees in the management period) of up to 250, and
- achieve an annual turnover (incomes from the sales) of up to 50 million lei or hold total assets (fixed assets and current assets) of up to 50 million lei.
Liquidity – availability of sufficient assets to meet the payment obligations when they mature.
The liquidity ratio is a liquidity indicator of the enterprise that reflects the degree of coverage of short-term payment obligations with current assets.
Profitability is a synthetic form of expression of economic efficiency that reflects a firm’s ability to get from the activity it carries a profit or a benefit. Profitability is measured by the ratio of the results (a profit indicator (gross, net, etc.) and the means (resources or capital) used to obtain them.
Leasing – a business activity in the frame of which a party (lessor) undertakes, at the request of another party (tenant), to provide in possession and temporary use a good, purchased or produced by the lessor for a periodic payment (lease rate); upon expiration of the leasing contract, to respect the right of option of tenant to buy the good, to extend the leasing contract or to terminate the contractual reports.