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Updated: 07.10.2022
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Geography and environment
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Geography and administrative-territorial division

Moldova is situated in the South-Eastern part of Europe. At North, East and South it is neighboring with Ukraine, at West – with Romania. The area is equal to 33,8 thou. km2. The territory of Moldova has a stretch from North to South of 339 km, while from West to East – 155 km.

The minimum altitude is on the coast of northwest of lake Cahul and constitutes 3 m. Maximum altitude - Balanesti Hill and is 428 m.

The climate of Moldova is temperate-continental, influenced by Atlantic air masses coming from West, Mediterranean – from South-West and Continental – from North-East.

Average annual air temperature is within the range of 9°C-12°C. Annual precipitations differ from North to South and the average annual quantity is about 600 mm.

Moldovan rivers are a part of the Black Sea basin. The main rivers are Nistru and Prut which spring up from the Carpathians. On a small portion to the South, the Danube reaches the territory of Moldova.

Moldova does not have big lakes. The majority of them are in the valleys of rivers Prut and Nistru.

On the territory of Moldova, under the influence of relief and pedoclimatic elements, 2 types of vegetation predominate: forest and steppe. In the deciduous forests there are oaks, beeches, elms and hornbeams. The steppe vegetation has been preserved only occasionally in the form of separate lands and fragments of steppe vegetal associations.

The fauna of Moldova is grouped in 5 biotypes, represented by various species. In the forest live wild boars, badgers, deers, roes, different birds and reptiles. In the steppe zone are widespread the rodents. Aquatic fauna of Moldova is represented by various species of fresh water fish: cat-fish, carps, breams.

The natural resources of Moldova are little varied. The main natural richness is the soil, represented by various types of chernoziom. Other natural resources found on the territory of Moldova are the construction materials: granite, limestone, clay, sandstone.


Pollutant – any solid, liquid, gaseous (vapor) or energy (radiant, electromagnetic, ionizing, thermic, acoustic or vibratory) substance present in the environment, which may have negative effects on human health and / or the environment.

Emission – any introduction of pollutants into the environment as a result of any human activity, whether intentional or accidental, planned or extraordinary.

Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere – atmospheric air evacuation of pollutants from stationary and mobile sources. All pollutants emitted into the atmospheric air after they pass through the dust and gas capture facilities of the organized pollution sources, so without treatment from the organized and unorganized pollution sources.

Emission limit admissible (ELA) is evacuation of pollutant, determined by calculating the dispersion in the atmospheric air from the ground emission source or group of sources that do not exceed the air quality norms provided for the population, the animal and plant world.

Emission of pollutants provisionally coordinated (EPC) is the evacuation of polluting substances which, being evacuated and dispersed from the ground emission source or group of sources, exceeds air quality norms and for which it is foreseen to ELA volume, emission reduction measures plan.

Purification of gases removal of polluting substances from the gas mixture content when evacuated from sources of atmospheric air pollution by means of special devices, installations and equipment.

The amount of polluting substances captured (neutralized) includes all types of pollutants captured (neutralized) in the dust collecting (gas purification) installations from the total volume of pollutants emitted by stationary sources.

A stationary source of atmospheric pollution – an immobile technological unit, which in the process of operation eliminates pollutants in the atmosphere.

Water capture from natural aquatic objectives for use – extraction of water from surface and underground aquatic basins for water use. The total volume of water captured includes mine waters obtained as a result of the extraction of ores.

Water use – use of water resources extracted from different sources to satisfy economic, social and domestic needs. This does not include use of waste and drainage water and repeated circulating water.

Waste substances, materials, objects, scraps of raw materials from economic activities, domestic and consumer activities that have lost all or part of the initial value, some of which are reusable after processing.

Production and consumption wastes are waste resulting from technological and consumption processes.

Waste – substances, materials, objects, scraps of raw materials from economic, domestic and consumer activities that have lost all or part of the initial use value, some of which are reusable after processing.

Toxic waste – wastes containing hazardous substances with toxic properties or containing pathogens of infectious diseases.

Waste storage - waste disposal in authorized and specially organized places (polygons, landfills, underground areas) for burial or temporary storage for possible further processing and use.

Waste processing performing of some technological operations (dismantling, cutting, pressing, briquetting, grinding, melting, casting, fermenting etc.), which modify the composition and physical, chemical or biological properties of waste for the purpose of transforming them into secondary raw materials.

Use of waste reintroduction in the economic circle of waste as secondary raw materials or use after processing as semi-finished products or energy.

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