Registered crime (offence) - a deed (action or inaction) prejudicial, provided by the criminal law, committed with guilt and punishable by criminal punishment.
Contravention - the action or inaction - illicit, with a lower degree of social danger than the crime, committed with guilt, which violates the social values protected by law and is subject to contraventional penalty.
Exceptionally serious crime - is considered the crime committed with intent for which the criminal law provides life imprisonment.
Particularly serious crime - is considered the crime committed with intent for which the criminal law provides for a maximum punishment in imprisonment for a term exceeding 12 years.
Serious crime - is considered the deed for which the criminal law provides for a maximum sentence in imprisonment up to 12 years inclusive.
Less serious crime - is considered the deed for which the criminal law provides for a maximum sentence of imprisonment up to 5 years inclusive.
Minor crime - is considered the act for which the criminal law provides as a maximum sentence the imprisonment up to 2 years inclusive.
Criminal antecedent - the legal status of the person, which appears from the moment the conviction sentence becomes final, generating unfavorable legal consequences for the convict until the moment of extinguishing the criminal record or rehabilitation.
Recidivism - the intentional commission of one or more offenses by a person with a criminal record for an intentional offense.
Homicide (art. 145-147 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the action that leads to the loss of life of a person.
Serious intentional injury to bodily integrity or health (art. 151 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) is a life-threatening action that has caused loss of sight, hearing, speech or other organ or cessation of its functioning, a mental illness or other damage to health, accompanied by the stable loss of at least one third of work capacity, or which has led to termination of pregnancy or irreparable disfigurement of the face and / or adjacent regions.
Sexual intercourse with a person under the age of 16 (art. 174 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - sexual intercourse other than rape, acts of vaginal, anal or oral penetration and others, committed on a person who was known with certainty that did not reach the age of 16.
Perverse actions (art. 175 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - actions committed against a person who was known with certainty that he did not reach the age of 16, consisting of display, indecent touching, obscene or cynical discussions with the victim regarding sexual intercourse, the determination of the victim to participate in or attend pornographic performances, the provision of pornographic materials to the victim, as well as other sexual acts.
Violation of domicile (art. 179 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - illegal entry or stay in the home or residence of a person without his consent or refusal to leave them at his request, as well as illegal searches and investigations, the same actions committed with the application of violence or the threat of its application.
Theft (art. 186 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the stealthily of another person's property.
Burglary (art. 187 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the open theft of another person's property.
Robbery (art. 188 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the attack committed on a person for the purpose of stealing property, accompanied by violence dangerous to the life or health of the aggressed person or the threat of such violence.
Blackmail (art. 189 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the request to transfer the goods to the owner, possessor or holder or the right over them or to commit other patrimonial actions, violently threatening the person, his relatives with the spread of defamatory news about them, with the damage or destruction of the property of the owner, possessor, holder or with the abduction of the owner, possessor, holder or their relatives.
Scam (art. 190 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - illicit acquisition of another person's property by misleading one or more persons by presenting as true a false deed or as a liar of a true deed, in terms of nature, qualities substantial effects of the object, to the parties (if their identity is the determining reason for concluding the legal act) of the null or voidable legal act, or if its conclusion is determined by the malicious or cunning behavior that caused considerable damages.
Embezzlement of foreign property (art. 191 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the misappropriation, disposal or illegal use of the property of another or other persons by whom they were entrusted on the basis of a title and for a certain purpose or refusal to return, which caused considerable damage.
Larceny (art. 192 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the action for the purpose of stealing another person's property from pockets, bags or other objects of the person.
Domestic violence (art. 2011 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - intentional action or inaction committed by a family member against another family member, manifested by: i) abuse, other violent actions, resulting in minor bodily injury or of health, ii) isolation, intimidation for the purpose of imposing the will or personal control over the victim, iii) deprivation of economic means, including lack of primary means of subsistence, neglect, if they caused the victim minor harm to bodily integrity or health.
Child trafficking (art. 206 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - is the act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, housing or receiving a child, as well as giving or receiving payments or benefits for obtaining the consent of a person in control of the child, in the purpose of commercial or non-commercial sexual exploitation, exploitation through forced labor or services, the practice of begging or other vile purposes, appropriation of aid, allowances or social benefits, illegal use in medical or scientific tests or experiments, exploitation in slavery or in conditions similar to slavery, use in armed conflict, use in criminal activity, collection of human organs, tissues and / or cells, sale or purchase, use as a surrogate mother or for reproductive purposes, illegal adoption.
Crimes related to the illicit circulation of drugs (art. 217 - art. 219 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) illegal activities regarding:
- illegal sowing or cultivation of plants containing drugs or ethnobotanicals, processing or use of such plants;
- production, preparation, experimentation, extraction, processing, processing, procurement, storage, dispatch, transportation of drugs, ethnobotanicals or analogs;
- theft or extortion of drugs or ethnobotanicals;
- illegal use of drugs, ethnobotanicals or their analogues, committed publicly or on the territory of educational institutions, social rehabilitation institutions, penitentiaries, military units, in places of leisure, in places of education, training of minors or youth, other cultural or sporting activities or in their immediate vicinity;
- intentional unlawful introduction, in any way, into another person's body, against his will, of drugs, ethnobotanicals or their analogues;
- unnecessary prescription of drugs, falsification of prescription or other documents that allow obtaining drugs;
- organizing or maintaining caves for drug or ethnobotanical consumption, as well as making the premises available for these purposes.
Manufacture or circulation of counterfeit currency signs or false titles (art. 236 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - manufacture for the purpose of putting into circulation or putting into circulation currency signs (banknotes and coins, including jubilee and commemorative issued by the National Bank of Moldova or by the authorized body of a foreign state or of a monetary union of foreign states), of state securities or other false titles, used to make payments.
Smuggling (art. 248 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - crossing the customs border of the Republic of Moldova of: i) goods whose value exceeds 100 average monthly salaries per economy forecast, established by the Government decision in force at the time of the act, ii) weapons, explosive devices, ammunition, iii) narcotic substances, ethnobotanicals, substances with strong, toxic, poisonous, radioactive and explosive effects, as well as harmful waste and dual-use items, iv) cultural values, evading customs control or concealing them from him, by hiding in places specially prepared or adapted for this purpose, or by fraudulent use of documents or means of customs identification, or by non-declaration or inauthentic declaration in customs documents or other documents crossing the border.
Hooliganism (art. 287 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - intentional actions that grossly violate public order, accompanied by the application of violence against persons or the threat of such violence, the opposition of violent resistance to representatives of authorities or other persons who end hooliganism as well as actions which, by their content, are distinguished by a special cynicism or impudence.
Passive corruption (art. 324 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - claiming, accepting or receiving, personally or through an intermediary, by a public person or by a foreign public person of goods, services, privileges or advantages in any form, which is not he is entitled, for himself or for another person, or to accept their offer or promise to fulfill or not to perform or to delay or hasten the performance of an action in the exercise of his function or contrary to it.
Active corruption (art. 325 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - the promise, offering or giving, personally or through an intermediary, to a public person or a foreign public person of goods, services, privileges or advantages in any form, which are not due to him, for this or another person, to perform or not to perform or to delay or hasten the performance of an action in the exercise of his function or contrary to it.
Trafficking in influence (art. 326 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - claiming, accepting or receiving, promising, offering or giving to a person, personally or through intermediaries, money, securities, services, privileges, other goods or advantages, for himself or for another person, by a person who has influence or claims to have influence over a public person, persons with a position of public dignity, foreign public persons, international civil servant, to make him fulfill or not to hasten the performance of an action in the exercise of his function, whether or not such actions have been committed.
Abuse of power or abuse of functions (art. 327 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova) - intentional use by a public person of the employment situation, if it has caused considerable damage to public interests or the rights and interests protected by law of individuals or legal.
Road accident or traffic accident - an event, produced as a result of the violation of traffic rules, in which one or more vehicles in traffic on the public road were involved, resulting in injury to health, bodily integrity, death of one or more persons or material damage has been caused.
Drunkenness- the state of psycho-functional disorder of the body caused by the consumption of alcohol, drugs and / or other substances with similar effects.
Criminal punishment is a measure of state coercion and a means of correcting and re-educating the convict applied by the courts, in the name of the law, to persons who have committed crimes, causing certain shortcomings and restrictions on their rights.
The fine is a pecuniary sanction that is applied by the court in the cases and within the limits provided by the legislation in force. The fine is set in conventional units. The conventional unit of fine is equal to 50 MDL.
Unpaid work for the benefit of the community consists in involvement of the convict, outside the time of basic or study service, to work, determined by the local public administration authorities.
Prison consists in the deprivation of liberty of the person guilty of committing a crime by isolating him from the normal living environment and placing him, based on the decision of the court, for a certain period, in a penitentiary.
Life imprisonment consists in depriving the convict of his liberty for the rest of his life. Life imprisonment is established only for exceptionally serious crimes. Life imprisonment cannot be applied to women and minors.
Detention - any form of institutional deprivation of liberty, ordered on the basis of a final or enforceable decision of the court (investigating judge), issued under the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Detainee - a person deprived of liberty under the law, who is detained in penitentiaries, regardless of his status (sentenced or unsentenced).
Unsentenced - the person against whom the measure of pre-trial detention (does not include persons under contraventional arrest) is applied, under the conditions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, awaiting the decision of the first instance court regarding the conviction or acquittal.
Convicted after the first instance - the person in respect of whom, after the trial in the first instance, the conviction was decided.
Sentenced - the person in respect of whom the decision of the court remained final, by which it was sentenced to a criminal punishment deprived of liberty. Persons appealing the decision of the first instance in a hierarchically superior court, but do not yet have a final decision are also considered sentenced.
Penitentiary institutions - institutions subordinated to the National Administration of Penitentiaries in which, according to the court decision, the persons sentenced to imprisonment and life imprisonment, serve their custodial sentence as well as the temporary detention places for persons to whom the measure of pre-trial detention was applied. Penitentiary institutions are: closed, semi-closed, open type penitentiaries, juvenile penitentiaries, women's penitentiaries, criminal investigation isolators and penitentiary hospitals.
Minor - a person who has not reached the age of 18.
Judge - the person constitutionally invested with attributions of administration of justice, which he executes based on the law.
Lawyer - the person who has obtained a license according to the law and who has the right to participate in criminal prosecution and judicial processes, to rule and act on behalf of his clients and / or to represent and consult his clients in the field of law.
Notary - the person authorized by the state to provide public services on his behalf by carrying out the notarial activity based on the license issued by the Ministry of Justice under the conditions of the legislation in force.
Court executor - a natural person who obtained the license and was invested by the state with the competence to carry out activities of public interest in order to carry out the forced execution provided by the legislation in force.
Judicial expert - a person qualified and empowered, according to the law, to carry out expertise and draw conclusions in the specialty in which he is authorized, regarding certain facts, circumstances, material objects, phenomena and processes, body and human psyche, and which is included in State Register of Judicial Experts.
Mediator - third party, certified under the conditions of the legislation in force, which ensures the development of the mediation process in order to resolve the dispute between the parties.
Authorized administrator - natural person invested according to the law with attributions of supervision and / or administration of the legal persons of private law or of the individual entrepreneurs in the process of insolvency or dissolution.