Education. Science



The education system - represents the totality of education units (institutions) of various types, levels and forms of organization of education and training activities, ensuring the educational and vocational training of school population. Education organization forms are: daily attendance education, evening and part time education.

Educational level – education stagewithin which basic, medium or higher education is provided according to the curriculum.

School population – refers to the totality ofchildren, pupils and students included in the educational and training process during an academic year, regardless of the attended education forms (daily, evening, part-time and distance) and age.

School-age population – includes people whose age falls within the official educational level limits.

Graduate - is the pupil or the student who successfully promoted the last year of studies of a school or a university.

The teaching staff – refers to individuals who are employed in the education system and teach within the education and training process (full-time and part-time). Each teacher is registered only once, in the school unit where he has the main job (has a work card) and teaches the greatest number of hours.

Qualified teaching staff – refers to professionalswho are specially trainedin a particular field of activity.

Gross enrolment ratio at all levels of education – refers to the total number of children/pupils/students enrolled in all education levels, regardless of age, as a percentage ratio of the total population of the official age group corresponding to all levels of education (3-23 years).     

Net enrolment ratio at all levels of education – refers to the number of children/pupils/studentsfrom the official education age group (3-23 years), enrolled in these education levels, as a percentage ratio of the overall population from the same official age group.

Gross and net enrolment rate - is calculated separately for pre-school, primary and secondary education.

School enrolment degree by age / age groups – refers to the total number ofpupils of the same age/age group, regardless of the education level in which they are enrolled, as a percentage ratio of the total population of the same age/age group.

The number of pupils per teacher - the number of pupils enrolled in an educational level, reported to the number of teachers employed in the respective level of education in a particular academic year.

Science and intellectual property

Doctoral studies can be conducted throughout scientific research activity.

Postdoctoral studies represent a form of extending one’s theoretical knowledge and scientific researches of persons already detaining Doctor’s degree.

The number of persons studying for doctoral and postdoctoral degree represents the situation at the end of the year.

Research-development activity – scientific research and technological development activities as a whole.

The research-development activity does not cover the following categories of activities:

  • education and personnel training;
  • other scientific and technological activities, including the services of technical and scientific information (except for the cases when they represent staged within a research-development activity); collecting and processing data of general destination (if they do not refer to concrete surveys); testing and standardization; feasibility studies; specialized medical assistance; services regarding licenses and brevets; adapting, supporting, and running existing software;
  •  production activity (including innovation activity)
  • administration activity with other support activities (public management of research-development activity funding, etc.).

Fundamental surveys – experiment or theoretical surveys focused on obtaining some new knowledge without specific goal related to the use of such knowledge; the results of these surveys are hypotheses, theories, methods, etc.

Applied surveys – original works focused on obtaining some new knowledge with the aim to solve some concrete practical problems; the applied surveys determine the possible ways of using the results of the fundamental surveys, new methods for solving problems which were formulated previously.

Technological developments – systematic works based on existing knowledge obtained as a result of the surveys and (or) practical experience and focused on creating new materials, products, procedures, devices, services, systems or methods.

Expenses for research-development – the amounts spent for the research-development activity (costs) during a certain period of time, regardless of the sources from which the financial means are provided.

Internal expenses for research-development – expenses for the research-development activity performed with the own forces of the reporting organization.

External expenses for research-development – expenses for the research-development activity performed by third parties based on contracts signed with the reporting organization.

Current costs cover all the expenses incurred during a certain period of time, representing the costs for work remuneration, payments for material assets, supplies, equipment and tools which are not part of the capital costs; consumables, water, fuel, energy of all types, etc., as well as other current costs.

Capital costs cover all the expenses incurred during a certain period of time for building construction and purchase, for carrying out ample reconstruction, modernization and reparation of the buildings meant for carrying out scientific research, for procurement of other fixed assets, for procurement of land plots meant for carrying out scientific research. As well as other capital costs.

Number of employees in the research-development activity indicated the effective number of employees, without the persons with suspended work contract and those with cumulative work contracts.

Researchers – specialists from research-development activity who deal directly with creation of new knowledge, products, procedures, methods, and systems, as well as with managing the types of activity.

Technicians – workers who participate in the research-development activity, performing technical functions, as a rule, under the leadership of researchers (operation and maintenance of scientific installations, laboratory devices, computers, preparation of material, technical designs, carrying out of tests, analyses, etc.).

Auxiliary personnel – workers who participate in executing research-development themes or those who are directly involved in carrying out such themes: workers of the economic and financial planning subdivisions, technical-scientific information subdivisions; workers who assemble, adjust, maintain, and repair the scientific devices and apparatus; lab workers without higher and specialized secondary education.

Employees from the research-development activity – physical number of persons and conventional measurement called “full time equivalent (FTE)”. This concept is based on the evaluation unit, representing a person working full time during a certain period of time (person-year). Hence, FTE allows avoiding the extra estimation of the number of personnel, giving the fact that some persons involved in the R&D activity allocate part of the time to other activities (for ex., professional training of the students, management, health care etc.). Moreover,  some persons are part-time employees, for ex. Less than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week, or they haven’t worked during for the whole year (are employed or dismissed during the year).

Human and financial resources from the research-development activity are presented by sector of execution, according to the methodology set forth in the Frascati Manual, taking into account the respective economy sectors:

State sector covers the institutions that provide public administration and ensure the needs of the society as a whole and the non-profit organization which a controlled and funded mainly by the State. This sector includes: institutions subordinated to central and local public administration, research/development institutions of the Academy of Science, except for those that provide services of/for higher education.

Higher education sector covers all the higher education institutions, scientific research centers under the institutions of higher education.

Entrepreneurship sector covers all the enterprises and organizations, which deal (as main activity) with production of goods or services for the market (other than higher education services), including the State ones, as well as the non-profit private organizations which provide for them services.

Non-commercial private sector covers private organizations which do not produce for the market and population households.

Issued title of protection / decisions of grant – a document issued by AGEPI (patent or certificate) confirming the rights in an invention, plant variety, trademark, industrial design and other objects of industrial property. For applications for protection of trademarks, industrial designs submitted by international way are not issued titles of protection, but are issued decisions of granting protection.

Applicant means a natural person or legal entity requesting in writing with the AGEPI the grant of a title of protection for an industrial property object.

Owner means a natural person or legal entity to which the right conferred by a title of protection belongs.

Invention means a solution that solves a technical problem by technical means.

Utility model means a solution that solves a technical problem, especially on the form of construction and assembly of a product.

Plant variety means a plant grouping belonging to the lowest of the known botanical taxa, which irrespective of whether it complies fully with the criteria for the grant of patent protection:

  • may be defined by the characteristics of a given genotype or combination of genotypes; 
  • may be distinguished from any other plant grouping by the degree of expression of at least one of the said characteristics;
  • may be considered to be reproduced without any alterations as a unified whole in terms of its characteristics.

Trademark - any graphically representable designation, allowing goods and/or services of one natural person or legal entity to be distinguished from the goods and/or services of other natural persons or legal entities.

Industrial design - the external appearance of an article or part thereof formed, inter alia, from the lines, curves, colors, shapes, textures and/or materials of the article itself and/or its decoration.

The validity of the titles of protection - maintenance in force of different categories of titles of protection, for which the protection of industrial property rights is ensured and guaranteed within the time prescribed by law, subject to payment of fees corresponding to each of these titles.

Eurasian patent valid in the Republic of Moldova - patent issued by the Eurasian Patent Organization to an owner, upon request filed under the Eurasian Patent Convention (entered into force for Moldova on 16.02.1996 and denounced on 26.04.2011), who has paid the fee for maintenance in force of the patent on the territory of the Republic of Moldova.

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